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锌单晶

锌单晶 30Zn65.37


说明:锌是一种蓝白色金属,浇铸时很脆。在空气中失去光泽,溶于酸和碱。锌被用于镀锌铁,合金(例如黄铜),电池。氧化锌用于橡胶和聚合物的稳定剂。


锌单晶性能参数


状态:

单晶


晶体结构:

hexagonal

生产方法:

Bridgman

标准尺寸:

diameter 10-20mm

thickness 1-2mm

晶向:

(1001), (1-100) and (11-20)

晶向精度:

<2°, <1°, <0.5° or <0.1°

纯度:

as cut, one or two sides polished

表面粗糙度:

<0.03μm

典型分析:

99.999%

典型分析(ppm):

Ag 2

Ca 1

Cd 3

Cu < 2

Fe < 2

Hg < 1

Pb 2

Sn < 1

Zn balance


其他性能参数


晶体结构:

(cell dimensions/pm), space group

h.c.p. (a=266.47, c=494.69), P63/mmc

X射线衍射质量吸收系数:

CuKa 60.3 (μ/r) / cm2g-1 MoKa 55.4 (μ/r) / cm2g-1

中子散射距离:

0.5680 b/10-12 cm

热中子捕获横截面:

1.11 sa / barns

密度:

7.14 g/cm3

熔点:

419.58 °C / 692.73 °K

沸点:

906.85 °C / 1180 °K

摩尔体积:

9.17 cm3

导热系数:

116 [300 K] Wm-1K-1

热膨胀线系数:

25.0 x 10-6 K-1

电阻系数:

5.916x10-8 [293 K] Wm

聚磁敏感性:

-2.20 x 10-9(s) kg-1m3

杨氏模量:

104.5 GPa

刚性模量:

41.9 GPa

体积模量:

69.4 GPa

泊松比:

0.249 GPa

半径:

Zn2+ 83; atomic 133; covalent 125

负电性:

1.65 (Pauling); 1.66 (Allred); 4.45 eV (absolute)

有效核电荷:

4.35 (Slater); 5.97 (Clementi); 8.28 (Froese-Fischer)

同位素:

23

同位素质量范围:

57 -> 78


生物资料


生物类别:

Essential for all species

毒性

毒性摄取量:

generally regarded as of low toxicity

致命摄取量:

LD50 (chloride, oral, rat) = 350 mg kg-1

危险性:

Zinc metal is a human skin irritant but otherwise is non-toxic and so are most common compounds; however, zinc salts have been shown to be experimental carcinogens.

人体等级

血液:

7.0 mg dm-3

骨骼:

75 - 170 p.p.m.

肝脏:

240 p.p.m.

肌肉:

240 p.p.m.

每日食物摄取量:

5 - 40 mg

70kg成人平均总元素含量:

2.3 mg


地质资料


矿物:

Many minerals are known, and aluminium is present in many other minerals

矿物化学式

公式

密度

硬度

晶体外观

Hemimorphite

Zn4Si2O7(OH)2.H2O

3.475

4.5 - 5

orth., vit./pearly white

Hydrozincite

Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6

4.00

2 - 2.5

mon., earthy/silky white etc.

Sphalerite

ZnS

4.08

3.5

cub., yellow to brown

Smithsonite

ZnCO3

4.2

4 - 4.5

rhom., vit. grey-white

Willemite

Zn2SiO4

4.1

5.5

rhom., vitreous-resinous, white/pale green


主要矿石:

sphalerite (with cadmium, gallium and indium as by-products), smithsonite, hemimorphite. Hydrozincite is also mined for zinc when found in economic amounts.

世界产量:

5.02 x 106 tonnes/year

主要矿区:

USA, Canada, Australia, Austria, Russia, Turkey

储量:

110 x 106 tonnes

样品:

available as dust, foila, granules, pieces,

powder, shot, sticks and wire. Safe.


总含量


太阳:

2.82 x 104 (relative to H = 1 x 1012)

地壳:

75 p.p.m.

海水:

大西洋表面:

0.5 x 10-4 p.p.m.

大西洋深处:

1.0 x 10-4 p.p.m.

太平洋表面:

0.5 x 10-4 p.p.m.

太平洋深处:

5.2 x 10-4 p.p.m.

停留时间:

5000 years

类别:

recycled

氧化态:

II

 

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