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锂单晶


锂单晶 3Li6.939


说明: 锂是一种银白色的软金属,可以与氧气和水缓慢反应,它主要被应用于轻合金,特别是铝和镁,润滑油,电池,玻璃,机械和原子弹等领域。


锂单晶性能参数


状态:

单晶

晶体结构:

cubic, bc

生产方法:

Czochralski

标准尺寸:

diameter 5mm

thickness 3mm

晶向:

(100), (110) and (111)

晶向精度:

<2°, <1°, <0.5° or <0.1°

纯度:

as cut

典型分析:

99.8%


其他性能参数


晶体结构:

(cell dimensions/pm), space group

a-Li b.c.c. (a=351.00), Im3m

b-Li f.c.c. (a=437.9), Fm3m

a form stable at room temperature; converts to

b form at low temperatures

X射线衍射质量吸收系数:

CuKa 0.716 (μ/r) / cm2g-1

MoKa 0.217 (μ/r) / cm2g-1

中子散射距离:

- 0.190 b/10-12 cm

热中子捕获横截面:

70.5 sa / barns

密度:

0.53 g/cm3

熔点:

180.54 °C / 453.69 °K

沸点:

1346.85 °C / 1620 °K

摩尔体积:

13.00 cm3

导热系数:

84.7 [300 K] Wm-1K-1

热膨胀线系数:

56 x 10-6 K-1

电阻系数:

8.55x10-8 [273 K] Wm

聚磁敏感性:

+2.56 x 10-8(s) kg-1m3

杨氏模量:

4.91 GPa

刚性模量:

4.24 GPa

体积模量:

n.a. GPa

泊松比:

0.36 GPa

半径:

Li+ 78; atomic 152; covalent 123

负电性:

0.98 (Pauling); 0.97 (Allred); 3.01 eV (absolute)

有效核电荷:

1.30 (Slater); 1.28 (Clementi); 1.55 (Froese-Fischer)

同位素:

5

同位素质量范围:

5 -> 9


生物资料


生物类别:

none, but lithium acts to stimulate metabolism and can control manic-depressive disorders

毒性


毒性摄取量:

20 - 200 g (see under hazards)

致命摄取量:

LD50 (carbonate, oral, rat)=525 mg kg-1

危险性:

Lithium is moderately toxic by ingestion but there are wide variations of tolerance. Even lithium carbonate, which is used in psychiatry, is prescribed at doses near to the toxic level. Some lithium compounds are carcinogenic and teratogenic.

人体等级


血液:

0.004 mg dm-3

骨骼:

1.3 p.p.m.

肝脏:

0.025 p.p.m.

肌肉:

0.023 p.p.m.

每日食物摄取量:

0.1 - 2 mg

70kg成人平均总元素含量:

7 mg


地质资料


矿物:


矿物化学式

公式

密度

硬度

晶体外观

Amblygonite

(Li, Na)AlPO4(F, OH)

3.1

5.5 - 6

tric., vit./greasy white/grey

Lepidolite

K(Li, Al)3(Si, Al)4O10(F, OH)2

2.85

2.5 - 3

mon., pink/lilac, lamellae

Petalite

LiAlSi4O10

2.4

6 - 6.5

mon., vit./pearly colourless/white

Spudomene

LiAlSi2O6

3.2

6.5 - 7.5

mon., vit. colourless/grey


主要矿石:

petalite, lepidolite

世界产量:

39000 tonnes/year

主要矿区:

USA, lithium is also recovered from brines of Searles Lake in California

储量:

7.3 x 106 tonnes

样品:

available as chunks, ingots, powder ribbon, rod, shot or wire. CARE !


总含量


太阳:

10 (relative to H = 1 x 1012)

地壳:

20 p.p.m.

海水:

0.17 p.p.m.

停留时间:

2 x 106 years

类别:

accumulating

氧化态:

I

 

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