10. Which developers are optimal for photoresist, and how do factors like developer concentration and temperature influence the result?
During development, a positive tone resist film is structured by a removal of exposed areas, while unexposed areas are removed when negative resists are used. To achieve reproducible results,temperatures between 21 and 23 °C ± 0,5 ℃ are highly recommended.
Allresist offers two different kinds of developers, which are either buffered systems (AR 300-26, AR 300-35) or metal ion free (unbuffered) TMAH developers (AR 300-44 … 475):
Developer AR 300-26 is a buffered system with high activity which is preferably used for the development of thick resist films > 5 μm, if a high contrast, steep edges, and short developments times are desired. Provided as developer concentrate, this developer is diluted with deionised water and can also be used for spray developments.
Developer AR 300-35 is a buffer system with broad application range. This developer is primarily
Developer AR 300-35 is a buffer system with broad process range and particularly characterised by a wide variation range with respect to contrast and sensitivity. This highly versatile developer suitable for
The developer product line AR 300-40 comprises 4 metal ion-free developers in various concentrations, which particularly well meet the high demands of micro lithographic applications in semiconductor industry. The use of these developers minimises the possibility of metal ion contamination on the substrate surface. They exhibit excellent netting features and work, as aqueous alkaline solutions, without leaving any residues. The developers are each adjusted to the different resist systems AR-P 3000-5000 and 7000. →Metal ion-free developers are more sensitive to dilution
Higher developer concentrations result in an increased light sensitivity of positive resist developer systems. The required exposure energy is minimised and development time is reduced, allowing a high operational capacity. Possible disadvantages might be a higher thickness loss of unexposed areas and also a low process stability (too fast). Using higher developer concentrations, negative resists require a higher exposure dose for crosslinking.
Lower developer concentrations provide a higher contrast, e.g. of positive resist films, and reduce the resist thickness loss of unexposed or partly exposed border areas even at longer development times. The best contrast values can be obtained with diluted buffered systems (AR 300-26, AR 300-35).In this case, the exposure energy required is mandatorily increased. Negative resists require a lower exposure dose (for crosslinking) at lower developer concentrations.
The effectiveness of the developing bath for immersion development is limited by factors such as process throughput and CO2 absorption from air. The throughput is dependent on the fraction of exposed areas. CO2 absorption is also caused by frequent opening of the developer bottle and leads to a reduced development rate.